Wisconsin 1997-98 Statutes
 
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Wednesday 15 September 1999

939.05 RELATED CASE LAW APPENDED

939.05 Parties to Crime.

939.05(1)

   Whoever is concerned in the commission
   of a crime is a principal and may be
   charged with and convicted of the
   commission of the crime although
   the person did not directly commit it
   and although the person who directly
   committed it has not been convicted
   or has been convicted of some other
   degree of the crime or of some other
   crime based on the same act.

939.05(2)

   A person is concerned in the commission
   of the crime if the person:

939.05(2)(a)

   Directly commits the crime; or

939.05(2)(b)

   Intentionally aids and abets
   the commission of it; or

939.05(2)(c)

   Is a party to a conspiracy with another
   to commit it or advises, hires,
   counsels or otherwise procures
   another to commit it.

Such a party is also concerned in the
commission of any other crime which is
committed in pursuance of the intended
crime and which under the circumstances
is a natural and probable consequence
of the intended crime.

This paragraph does not apply to a person who
voluntarily changes his or her mind and no
longer desires that the crime be committed
and notifies the other parties concerned of
his or her withdrawal within a reasonable
time before the commission of the crime so
as to allow the others also to withdraw.

History: 1993 a. 486.

It is desirable but not mandatory that an
information refer to this section where the
district attorney knows in advance that a
conviction can only be based on participation
and the court can instruct and the defendant
can be convicted on the basis of the section
in the absence of a showing of adverse
effect on the defendant.

Bethards v. State
45 Wis.2d 606
173 N.W.2d 634.

It is not error that an information
charging a crime does not also charge
defendant with being a party to a crime.

Nicholas v. State
49 Wis.2d 683
183 N.W.2d 11.

Under Subsection 939.05(2)(c) a conspirator
is one who is concerned with a crime
prior to its actual commission.

State v. Haugen
52 Wis.2d 791
191 N.W.2d 12.

An information charging defendant with being
a party to a crime need not set forth the
particular subsection relied upon.

A defendant can be convicted of 1st degree
murder under this statute even though he
claims that he only intended to rob
and an accomplice did the shooting.

State v. Cydzik
60 Wis.2d 683
211 N.W.2d 421.

The state need not elect as to which of the
elements of the charge it is relying on.

Hardison v. State
61 Wis.2d 262
212 N.W.2d 103.

Evidence establishing that defendant's car
was used in robbery getaway was sufficient
to convict defendant of armed robbery, party
to a crime, where defendant admitted sole
possession of car on night of robbery.

Taylor v. State
74 Wis.2d 255
246 N.W.2d 518.

Conduct undertaken to intentionally aid
another in commission of a crime and which
yields such assistance constitutes aiding
and abetting the crime and whatever it
entails as a natural consequence.

State v. Asfoor
75 Wis.2d 411
249 N.W.2d 529.

Defendants may be found guilty under
939.05(2) if, between them, they perform all
necessary elements of crime with awareness of
what the others are doing; each defendant
need not be present at scene of crime.

Roehl v. State
77 Wis.2d 398
253 N.W.2d 210.

Aiding-and-abetting theory and
conspiracy theory discussed.

State v. Charbarneau
82 Wis.2d 644
264 N.W.2d 227.

Withdrawal under 939.05(2)(c) must be timely.

Zelenka v. State
83 Wis.2d 601
266 N.W.2d 279 (1978).

This section applies to all crimes
except where legislative intent
clearly indicates otherwise.

State v. Tronca
84 Wis.2d 68
267 N.W.2d 216 (1978).

Proof of a "stake in the venture" is not
needed to convict under 939.05(2)(b).

Krueger v. State
84 Wis.2d 272
267 N.W.2d 602 (1978).

Multiple conspiracies discussed.

Bergeron v. State
85 Wis.2d 595
271 N.W.2d 386 (1978).

Jury need not unanimously agree whether
defendant 939.05(1) directly committed
crime, 939.05(2) aided and abetted its
commission, or 939.05(3) conspired
with another to commit it.

Holland v. State,
91 Wis.2d 134,
280 N.W.2d 288 (1979).

Aider and abettor who withdraws from
conspiracy does not remove self
from aiding and abetting.

May v. State,
97 Wis.2d 175,
293 N.W.2d 478 (1980).

Party to crime is guilty of that crime
whether or not party intended that crime
or had intent of its perpetrator.

State v. Stanton,
106 Wis.2d 172,
316 N.W.2d 134 (Ct. App. 1982.)

See note to 161.41, citing

State v. Hecht,
116 Wis.2d 605,
342 N.W.2d 721 (1984).

See note to 971.23, citing

State v. Horenberger,
119 Wis.2d 237,
349 N.W.2d 692 (1984).

Depending on facts of case, armed
robbery can be natural and probable
consequence of robbery.

In such case, aider and abettor
need not have had actual knowledge
that principals would be armed.

State v. Ivey,
119 Wis.2d 591,
350 N.W.2d 622 (1984).

Subsection 939.05(1)(c) may be violated where
defendant solicits second person to procure
third person to commit crime.

State v. Yee,
160 Wis.2d 15,
465 N.W.2d 260 (Ct. App. 1990).

Individual officers are personally
responsible for criminal acts committed
in the name of a corporation.

State v. Kuhn,
178 Wis.2d 428,
504 N.W.2d 405 (Ct. App. 1993).

A defendant may be guilty of felony murder,
party to a crime, where the defendant
participates with an accomplice in a
felony listed in Section 940.03 and
the accomplice kills another.

There is no requirement that the
defendant have an intent to kill,
or directly cause the death.

State v. Rivera,
184 Wis.2d 485,
516 N.W.2d 391 (1994),

State v. Chambers,
183 Wis.2d 316,
515 N.W.2d 531 (Ct. App. 1994),

State v. Oimen,
184 Wis.2d 423,
516 N.W.2d 399 (Ct. App. 1994).

Unanimity requirement was satisfied
when jury unanimously found that
accused participated in crime.

Lampkins v. Gagnon,
710 F.2d 374 (1983).

This section does not shift burden of proof.

Prosecution need not specify which
paragraph of 939.05(2) under
which it intends to proceed.

Madden v. Israel,
478 F Supp. 1234 (1979).

Liability for coconspirator's crimes in
the Wisconsin party to a crime statute.

66 MLR 344 (1983).

Application of Gipson's unanimous verdict
rationale to the Wisconsin party
to a crime statute.

1980 WLR 597.

Wisconsin's party to a crime statute:

The mens rea element under the aiding and
abetting subsection, and the aiding and
abetting-choate conspiracy distinction.

1984 WLR 769.

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939.05 Parties to Crime Citations:

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Parties to a Crime  939.50 UNPUBLISHED CASES

State v. Scott,                (Ct.App. 1999)
State v. Penigar,              (Ct.App. 1999)
State v. Smith,                (Ct.App. 1998)
In Interest of Albert S.,      (Ct.App. 1998)
State v. Weiss,                (Ct.App. 1998)
State v. Saks,                 (Ct.App. 1998)
State v. Green,                (Ct.App. 1998)
State v. Jackson,              (Ct.App. 1997)
In Interest of Joseph J.J.,    (Ct.App. 1997)
In Interest of Nicholas A.G.,  (Ct.App. 1997)
State v. Moore,                (Ct.App. 1997)
State v. Thom,                 (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Brown,                (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. McNeal,               (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Moskonas,             (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Perry,                (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Drew,                 (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Setagord,             (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Avila,                (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Whitelaw,             (Ct.App. 1996)
State v. Winfrey,              (Ct.App. 1995)
In Interest of Sally S.,       (Ct.App. 1995)
State v. Goldsmith,            (Ct.App. 1996)
In Interest of Jonathon R. K., (Ct.App. 1995)
State v. Winfrey,              (Ct.App. 1995)

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939.50 PARTIES TO A CRIME CASE LAW CITATIONS:

PARTIES TO A CRIME - 939.50 PUBLISHED CASES:

State v. Strutz,               (Ct.App. 1999)

State v. Taylor,                Ct.App. 1999)

State v. Block,
222 Wis.2d 586                 (Ct.App. 1998)

State v. Magnuson,             (Ct.App. 1998)
220 Wis.2d 468

State v. Lechner,                      (1998)
217 Wis.2d 392
576 N.W.2d 912

State v. David L.W.,           (Ct.App. 1997)
213 Wis.2d 277
570 N.W.2d 582

State v. Damaske,              (Ct.App. 1997)
212 Wis.2d 169
567 N.W.2d 905

State v. Setagord,                     (1997)
211 Wis.2d 397
565 N.W.2d 506

State v. Gantt,                (Ct.App. 1996)
201 Wis.2d 206
548 N.W.2d 134

State v. Turner,               (Ct.App. 1996)
200 Wis.2d 168
546 N.W.2d 880

Management Computer            (Ct.App. 1995)
Services v. Hawkins,
196 Wis.2d 578
539 N.W.2d 111

State v. Delgado,              (Ct.App. 1995)
194 Wis.2d 737
535 N.W.2d 450

State v. Dugan,                (Ct.App. 1995)
193 Wis.2d 610
534 N.W.2d 897

State v. Setagord,             (Ct.App. 1994)
187 Wis.2d 340
523 N.W.2d 124

State v. King,                 (Ct.App. 1994)
187 Wis.2d 548
523 N.W.2d 159

State v. Zimmerman,            (Ct.App. 1994)
185 Wis.2d 549
518 N.W.2d 303

State v. Bush,                 (Ct.App. 1994)
185 Wis.2d 716
519 N.W.2d 645

State v. Goldstein,            (Ct.App. 1994)
182 Wis.2d 251
513 N.W.2d 631

State v. Harrington,           (Ct.App. 1994)
181 Wis.2d 985
512 N.W.2d 261

State v. Washington,           (Ct.App. 1993)
176 Wis.2d 205
500 N.W.2d 331

State v. Camacho,                      (1993)
176 Wis.2d 860
501 N.W.2d 380

State v. Dauer,                (Ct.App. 1993)
174 Wis.2d 418
497 N.W.2d 766

State v. Grayson,                      (1992)
172 Wis.2d 156
493 N.W.2d 23

State v. Thompson,             (Ct.App. 1992)
172 Wis.2d 257
493 N.W.2d 729

State v. Mitchell,                     (1992)
169 Wis.2d 153
485 N.W.2d 807

State v. James,                (Ct.App. 1992)
169 Wis.2d 490
485 N.W.2d 436

State v. Sinks,                (Ct.App. 1992)
168 Wis.2d 245
483 N.W.2d 286

State v. Wicks,                (Ct.App. 1992)
168 Wis.2d 703
484 N.W.2d 378

State v. Comstock,                     (1992)
168 Wis.2d 915
485 N.W.2d 354

State v. Ferguson,             (Ct.App. 1991)
166 Wis.2d 317
479 N.W.2d 241

State v. Paske,                        (1991)
163 Wis.2d 52
471 N.W.2d 55

State v. Martin,               (Ct.App. 1990)
156 Wis.2d 399
456 N.W.2d 892

State v. McQuay,                       (1990)
154 Wis.2d 116
452 N.W.2d 377

State v. Clement,              (Ct.App. 1989)
153 Wis.2d 287
450 N.W.2d 789

State v. Bruckner,             (Ct.App. 1989)
151 Wis.2d 833
447 N.W.2d 376

State v. Davis,                        (1988)
144 Wis.2d 852
425 N.W.2d 411

State v. Crowley,                      (1988)
143 Wis.2d 324
422 N.W.2d 847

City of Madison v. Polenska,   (Ct.App. 1988)
143 Wis.2d 525
421 N.W.2d 862

State v. Lukensmeyer,          (Ct.App. 1987)
140 Wis.2d 92
409 N.W.2d 395

State v. Zielke,                       (1987)
137 Wis.2d 39
403 N.W.2d 427

State v. Stoehr,                       (1986)
134 Wis.2d 66
396 N.W.2d 177

State v. Kennedy,              (Ct.App. 1986)
134 Wis.2d 308
396 N.W.2d 765

State v. Heffran,                      (1986)
129 Wis.2d 156
384 N.W.2d 351

State v. Danforth,                     (1986)
129 Wis.2d 187
385 N.W.2d 125

State v. Boehm,                (Ct.App. 1985)
127 Wis.2d 351
379 N.W.2d 874

State v. Glotz,                (Ct.App. 1984)
122 Wis.2d 519
362 N.W.2d 179

State v. O'Neill,                      (1984)
121 Wis.2d 300
359 N.W.2d 906

In re Felony Sentencing Guidelines,    (1984)
120 Wis.2d 198
353 N.W.2d 793

State v. Harris,                       (1984)
119 Wis.2d 612
350 N.W.2d 633

State v. Daniels,              (Ct.App. 1983)
117 Wis.2d 9
343 N.W.2d 411

State v. Cooper,               (Ct.App. 1983)
117 Wis.2d 30
344 N.W.2d 194

State v. Bernal,               (Ct.App. 1983)
111 Wis.2d 280
330 N.W.2d 219

State v. Morris,                       (1982)
108 Wis.2d 282
322 N.W.2d 264

State v. Johnson,              (Ct.App. 1982)
108 Wis.2d 703
324 N.W.2d 447

State v. Olson,                (Ct.App. 1981)
103 Wis.2d 455
308 N.W.2d 917

In Interest of B.M.,                   (1981)
101 Wis.2d 12
303 N.W.2d 601

State v. Smith,                (Ct.App. 1981)
100 Wis.2d 317
302 N.W.2d 54

Wisconsin Law Enforcement      (Ct.App. 1980)
Standards Board v.
Lyndon Station,
98 Wis.2d 229
295 N.W.2d 818

State ex rel. Cholka v. Johnson,       (1980)
96 Wis.2d 704
292 N.W.2d 835

Haldane v. State,                      (1978)
85 Wis.2d 182
270 N.W.2d 75
 
 
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